How to Find the Best Windows Mini PC
The term “microcomputer” has its origins in the 1970s—the “micro” of the personal computers emerging then lay in stark contrast to the room-size mainframe beasts of the day. But fast-forward 40 or so years, and—oh, micro, how you have changed!
Indeed, most of the acceleration toward super-small in desktop PCs has happened over the last decade. Of course, it’s still easy enough to find ordinary business boxes and hulking power towers packed with big video cards and multiple drives. But starting with the “small-form-factor” (SFF) PC revolution of the ’00s, many desktops have gone from half-size towers to compact cubes to, in their most extreme reduction, sticks not a whole lot bigger than a USB flash drive.
A big reason why? Graphics acceleration and other essential features, handled in the past by separate chips or bulky cards, have been subsumed under the CPU. Nowadays, small-ification is getting to the point where you can’t go all that much smaller. You need to leave some space for ports to plug in a thing or two.
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Mini PCs: Defining Degrees of Small
As a result, we’re seeing some clear stratification in the market for tiny desktop PCs. The very smallest PCs might be termed the “stick class,” vanguarded by the Atom-CPU-powered Intel Compute Stick we first reviewed in early 2015 (and again in its refreshed, Cherry Trail Atom and Core m3 forms in 2016), followed by similar sticks from Lenovo, Asus, and others. These are really only suitable for display/signage use or extremely basic applications, and after a promising debut a few years back, have not seen much evolution or momentum. You can still find them on the market, but they have failed to have a major impact.
The models next up in size are a bit more dynamic, a bunch we might term the “NUC class.” NUC stands for “Next Unit of Computing,” an initiative by Intel to spur the development of very small Windows-based desktop PCs using its mobile-centric processors. The chip giant has released a series of NUC-branded mini-PC kits in its own line, and several of the traditional PC-component makers have followed suit with similar models (Asus with its VivoMini line, for one).
The NUC PCs and their ilk tend to be around 5 or 6 inches square. Separate from those is a host of PCs that are undeniably small but follow their own shape and size rules. Zotac, a major player in small PCs (and one of the category’s unsung early innovators), offers a huge range of Zbox PCs that range in size from a fat smartphone to a bulky Discman. Shuttle, too, is another small-PC pioneer, offering machines in a host of shapes, and on the macOS side of things, the venerable Apple Mac Mini (last updated in late 2018) is a sleek square silver box with rounded edges.
Bare Bones or Ready-Configured?
Not all mini PCs ship as complete systems; more so than any other class of PC, they tend not to.
Especially in the case of Intel’s NUC kits, Shuttle’s small PCs, and many of Zotac’s Zboxes, you get what amounts to a PC kit: a tiny chassis with a motherboard pre-installed (in some cases, a soldered-on processor is in place, as opposed to a socketed one), plus, in most cases, wireless connectivity built in. To complete the kit, you have to shop for and install a storage drive (a hard drive and/or a solid-state drive, depending on the model) and RAM modules, and install your own operating system.
This arrangement is what’s called in reseller lingo a “bare-bones PC.” You’ll want to make sure you know what you are getting. In some cases, a given mini system is sold in bare-bones form, as well as in pre-configured versions with storage, RAM, and Windows present.
You need to factor those parts and a Windows license (unless you plan to use Linux) into the total cost. The parts you will need, mind you, will be small: the kind that you’d typically find in a laptop, not a desktop. Many small PCs like these make use of DDR4 SO-DIMMs—laptop-style RAM modules—for their main memory instead of full-size desktop DDR4 DIMMs.
The form factor of the storage varies more. Depending on the mini PC you are looking at, you may need a 2.5-inch drive (a solid-state or hard drive, the size that goes into most full-size laptops), or a cutting-edge variety of SSD that’s known as an M.2 SSD. Such drives are the size and shape of a stick of chewing gum. Check out our guide to these complicated drives at the link; if you need to install an M.2 SSD in a bare-bones desktop, you need to know about some interface/bus and sizing subtleties before you shop. (It’s easy, otherwise, to buy an incompatible drive.)
If a given system is a bare-bones kit, you’ll need to get more than a little hands-on with it to get it up and running. But a kit gives you maximum flexibility in terms of component selection. That said, one advantage of a pre-configured system, apart from the easier setup, is the fact that Windows or macOS comes installed; you won’t need to install and update the OS and its drivers.
Dedicated or Integrated Graphics?
Most mini PCs are as “mini” as they are because they rely on the basic-grade graphics acceleration built into the CPU to power their video outputs—no separate graphics card is involved. This integrated graphics silicon will suffice for productivity work and video playback.
A few outlying models, though, do incorporate the same kind of separate, dedicated mobile graphics chips that appear in gaming laptops. Among them are Zotac’s Zbox Magnus models, which employ dedicated GeForce graphics muscular enough for serious PC gaming at reasonable detail settings at 1080p (1,920 by 1,080 pixels) and, in some cases, higher resolutions. One 2019 Zotac Zbox model even makes use of Nvidia Quadro graphics and Intel Xeon processors for workstation-grade tasks.
The most interesting such dedicated-graphics model of the last couple of years, though, is the Intel NUC Kit NUC8i7HVK (“Hades Canyon”) mini PC, which debuted in the first half of 2018. This small desktop makes use of one of Intel’s pioneering “Kaby Lake-G” processors that were developed in concert with AMD. The chip used here combines Intel Core i7 silicon for the CPU portion and AMD’s peppy Radeon RX Vega M graphics acceleration on the same die. (Earlier Intel NUCs relied solely on Intel’s own integrated HD Graphics or Iris solutions.) That means well-above-average graphics performance in a system this size.
Connectivity and Mountability
Some mini PCs include mounting kits that let you attach them to the back of an LCD monitor. Check for that feature if space savings of that kind is important to you. And check the back of your monitor for mounting holes, which, if present, normally comply with the VESA mounting standard.
Also check for 802.11 Wi-Fi (wireless networking) of some flavor. Most micro PCs include at least that as a standard feature (and a bunch more also incorporate Bluetooth), but double-check that the system or kit doesn’t require the purchase of a separate Wi-Fi card in the Mini-PCI Express or M.2 form factor. Some do.
CPU Power in a Mini PC
You’ll see a variety of mobile-grade CPUs in the small PCs out there, ranging from Intel Atom chips (very basic, and good at best for simple productivity work, e-mailing, and web browsing) up to Core i5 and i7 processors that can do some modest media-crunching and rendering work. It’s crucial that you know, however, if you are looking at a mobile-grade CPU (the kind used in laptops) or a desktop-strength chip. The size of the PC isn’t always a good predictor of that. (That said, the very smallest stick PCs will always use mobile chips.)
How to tell? Most of the mini PCs on the market make use of Intel silicon, and the dead giveaway whether you’re looking at a mobile CPU or a desktop one is usually (but not always) the letter at the end of the processor’s number. Look for a “T” or a “K,” or no letter at all, as a dead giveaway for a desktop chip (for example, Core i5-8400T), or a “U” for a mobile one. (Exception: a “Y” in the middle of the number, such as Core m3-7Y30, also indicates a mobile chip.) The chip family and generation being equal, you can generally expect more muscle (usually a consequence of more cores and higher base clocks) from the desktop version of, say, a Core i5 than from a mobile Core i5.
What should you glean from that mobile-versus-desktop insight? Our benchmark testing will quantify the trends, but none of the mobile-grade chips in these small PCs is a proper substitute for a desktop chip if you’re a a heavy multitasker, or a media pro who needs real processing muscle, say, to convert lots of video or photo files from one format to another. In most cases, the CPU is the single biggest factor in the cost of a mini PC, so keep an eye on the performance numbers in our reviews for a relative idea of what you are getting.
Rule of thumb? For light office work, you can get by with a mobile or desktop Core i3-, Pentium-, or Celeron-based mini-PC, but you’ll want to err on the side of a higher-end, desktop-strength Core chip if you’ll need extra pep now and then for serious multitasking, file conversions, heavy calculation-based work, or multimedia content manipulation. Atom chips, meanwhile, are okay for only the very lightest of tasks, or undemanding digital display/signage use.
Ready for Our Recommendations?
Check out the list below for our latest mini PC recommendations. If you’re shopping for a small desktop to save money, you’ll also want to check out our picks for the top cheap desktops. If you’d like to go a bit bigger, also head on over to our top choices for standard-size desktops, which include some small-form-factor PCs, or see our guide to the top all-in-one desktops, which tend to be trim and feature built-in displays.
Pros: 4K video capable; five USB ports; HDMI 2.0 port; IR remote is great
Cons: Can’t upgrade RAM
Bottom Line: The Byte3 is a tiny, flexible, semi-powerful Windows 10 desktop PC for $200…if you can believe that.
Pros: Small footprint. Good Xeon multicore computing performance. ISV certifications. Relatively inexpensive for a desktop workstation.
Cons: Large external power brick.
Bottom Line: The HP Z2 Mini G4 is a mini desktop with the performance of a far larger workstation, complete with Xeon processor options and ISV certifications.
Pros: Tiny build for a full Windows 10 PC. Low price. Plenty of connectivity options, including 4K HDMI support. Expandable storage and memory. Includes Bluetooth and Wi-Fi wireless connectivity. Three-year warranty.
Cons: Only 2GB of memory and 32GB of flash storage included.
Bottom Line: The NUC6CAYS model of the Intel NUC Kit is a small, versatile, upgradable, and highly affordable desktop PC with the same basic feature set as that of a much larger machine.
Pros: Low price. Compact build. Plenty of I/O ports. Expandable memory and storage. M.2 solid-state drive (SSD). 802.11ac Wi-Fi. Ships with VESA mount. Three-year warranty.
Cons: Only 2GB of memory and a 32GB SSD. Doesn’t come with a keyboard or mouse.
Bottom Line: The Shuttle XPC Nano ultra-small-form-factor (USFF) desktop PC is an inexpensive and highly appealing choice if you want to connect a PC to an HDTV, have a desire to tinker, or both.
Pros: Easy component access, Multiple locking options. Excellent choice of mounting peripherals. Remote management compatibility.
Cons: Pricey as configured. No USB-C ports.
Bottom Line: The Dell Optiplex 5050 Micro is a strong performer that fits almost anywhere, making it an excellent choice for large companies deploying an army of tiny desktop PCs.
Pros: Attractive, compact body. Modular accessories. Solid sound from Audio Module. Excellent connectivity options, including USB-C.
Cons: Few modules available at launch. Uses hard drive instead of SSD storage. Only 4GB of RAM.
Bottom Line: The HP Elite Slice is a modular small-form-factor business PC that can be used in conference rooms or at your employees’ desks, and can be switched to different configurations in just seconds.
Pros: Core i7 and Iris Plus graphics offer hefty computing power for such a small PC. Thunderbolt 3 support. Easy access for upgrades. Can hold two drives (one M.2, one 2.5-inch).
Cons: Cost of storage, memory, and (possibly) OS needs to be factored into overall cost.
Bottom Line: Intel’s latest bare-bones NUC Kit offers surprisingly robust loadout options in a tiny chassis, though it’s a pricey prospect once you factor in the cost of components and an OS.
Pros: Compact and quiet-running. Excellent overall CPU and GPU performance. AMD Vega graphics are VR-ready. Bristling with connectivity for its size. Dual M.2 slots. VESA-mountable chassis.
Cons: Steep price, once you factor in all components. Large external power adapter. No 2.5-inch bay.
Bottom Line: Intel Core i7 processing and AMD Vega graphics power meet in the Intel NUC Kit NUC8i7HVK, a super-slim bare-bones desktop that packs punchy, VR-ready performance and extraordinary connectivity.
Pros: Tons of at-purchase configuration options. Includes security features for businesses. Chassis is compact, rugged, and easily serviced. Plenty of ports. Runs quietly.
Cons: Minimal room for internal expansion, beyond 2.5-inch bay. Bundled keyboard and mouse are wired and subpar.
Bottom Line: Lenovo’s ThinkCentre M720q Tiny is a well-rounded, capable SFF PC suitable for cramped offices or other space-constrained work environs. Just nail the configuration you need up front-upgradability is limited.
Pros: Compact VESA-mountable design. Four HDMI video-out connectors from its Nvidia GTX 1050 GPU. Native serial port. Available as a barebones unit. Three-year warranty.
Cons: Pricey. Runs hot and loud under load. No DisplayPort video-out.
Bottom Line: Designed for tight spaces, the Shuttle DH02U7 is a tiny VESA-mountable PC for professional applications. Its Nvidia GTX 1050 graphics chip supports quad displays, but its noisy fans and high price limit its appeal.